respond to two other students’ initial post.  

  1. RESPONSE 1 

When someone that has a lot of knowledge about the city they are asking for directions in you will probably say something along the line of you know where so and so is well turn right down that road. This is because you know the location of a place and you are aware that the person you are communicating with knows the area well just not the location of the place. You would be using procedural knowledge because you would be explain to her how to get to the Downtown Musical Gallery. You would create the mental image of where the gallery is at for her so she therefore could imagine where it is at. Since she knows the city well it will not be hard for her to find it on the corner since she knows the city.  This would be a representation of factual knowledge because it is representing a specific domain. You would know the facts about the city so you would be able to find the Downtown Music Gallery.

When someone is new to a city and ask for directions you have to go with a different approach then you would if you knew the person was very familiar with the city. You would not be able to say that it is at the corner of the street because this person will not even know where those streets are at. The person would have to use declarative knowledge to understand the directions from Washington Heights to The Downtown Music Gallery. You would use procedural knowledge to go through the steps in order to get to the Downtown Music Gallery from Washington Heights. 

N, K. (2020). The four types of knowledge you’ve definitely experienced across your lifetime. LinkedIn. Retrieved from,%2C%20Conceptual%2C%20Procedural%20and%20Metacognitive.

response 2! 

When considering the two situations having to determine what kind of knowledge one may need have in order to understand specific direction for a location. The engineering approach states that focus on attention, perception, memory, comprehension, problem solving, and decision making are all factors that are considered when giving and receiving information.The approach to this discussion will be determined through the Human Information Processing theory. Which deals with how people receive, store, integrate, retrieve, and use the information. At basic level three subsystems Perceptual, Motor and Cognitive that allows prediction making about human performance. In the first situation, Someone asks you where to find The Downtown Music Gallery and you know it’s at the corner of East 5th and Bowery.  She knows the city very well. Since the person I am giving directions to also know the city very well. I would maybe suggest a short cut or the fastest route that only locals know. In the second situation Someone asks you where to find The Downtown Music Gallery and you know it’s at the corner of East 5th and Bowery. She is new to the city and wants to know how to get to the store from Washington Heights. In this case the person is a complete stranger to the location. This will need to be very detailed and maybe visually descriptions will be best when giving directions.Consciousness nearly always results from focal-attentive processing (as a form of output) but does not itself enter into this or any other form of human information processing. This suggests that the term “conscious process” needs reexamination. Consciousness appears to be necessary in a variety of tasks because they require focal-attentive processing; if consciousness is absent, focal-attentive processing is absent. From a first-person perspective, however, conscious states are causally effective. First-person accounts are complementary to third-person accounts. Although they can be translated into third-person accounts, they cannot be reduced to them.


Velmans, M. (1991). Is human information processing conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14(4), 651-669. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00071776