Outlines force you to re-read a text (whether your own during the revision and editing process, or another writer’s during the critical reading process). Re-reading in this way takes you to a clearer understanding of the argument and structure of the text you are examining. Outlining is particularly helpful as a tool for rhetorical analysis (the essay part of this project), in which you examine a text’s content, organization, and use of rhetorical devices to see what specific sections of the text are doing and saying, and if they seem to be doing and saying what the author intended.

Using the article you have chosen to focus on, create a descriptive outline that notes:

1) what each paragraph of the article SAYS (summarize the content); and

2) what each paragraph DOES (explain how the paragraph functions rhetorically – how the author uses the rhetrical appeals of ethos, pathos and logos).